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A resource to develop communities statewide that are well-equipped to prevent targeted violence.


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State Targeted Violence Prevention

The following resource aims to serve as a guide for U.S. state governments as they seek to implement comprehensive targeted violence prevention (TVP) programming. It is not aimed to be prescriptive, but rather provide menus of options for what comprehensive TVP programming might look like at a state level.

This resource lays out three specific categories of activities for state-level TVP implementation. The first (Preparation) and last (Monitoring) are “back-end” activities to help state governments lay the groundwork for effective programming and sustain those efforts in perpetuity. The middle category (Prevention) follows the public health model of violence prevention and incorporates four levels of prevention – Primordial, Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary – that address community and individual susceptibility to targeted violence.

Guided by the broad mission statement each activity category (i.e. Preparation, Prevention, Monitoring) has been organized as a logic model, delineating individual goals to accomplish the mission, and corresponding objectives, tasks, outputs, and desired outcomes for each goal. For each output and outcome, or key performance indicators (KPIs), we propose measures of success and corresponding methods/scales to calculate those measures. We also suggest impact indicators to gauge the extent of achieving the overall mission.

Finally, appendices lay out definitions of key terms, potential TVP stakeholders, references for targeted violence risk factors, scales for use in conducting measurements, and a references to materials used to develop this resource.

Mission Statement for State TVP Programming

Develop communities state-wide that are well-equipped to prevent targeted violence.

(For possible ways to gauge success, see Impact Measures.)

I. Preparation (Plan)

Goal 1: Draft a comprehensive state-wide Targeted Violence Prevention (TVP) strategy

Objectives

  • (1) The strategy is rooted in local needs, risk, challenges, and cultural contexts
  • (2) The strategy is developed with insights from different stakeholders, e.g., state government agencies, relevant NGOs, community leaders (see Stakeholders & Partners)
  • (3) The strategy incorporates primordial, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of targeted violence
  • (4) The strategy reflects collaboration across relevant state agencies and community organizations
  • (5) The strategy contains mechanisms for learning, continuous improvement, and outcome evaluation

Tasks

  • (1) Outline the list of specific community and individual risk factors the state strategy aims to address (see Risk Factors)
  • (2) Collaborate with relevant agencies and experts to conduct state-wide targeted violence threat and vulnerability assessments
  • (3) Based on the threat and vulnerability assessments, develop targeted violence “risk profiles” for different geographic areas of the state
  • (4) Map existing community resilience and broader violence prevention resources within the state and specific regions
  • (5) Organize workshops to solicit input from different communities and stakeholders on 1) best approaches for TVP in the state — both as a whole and in specific geographic areas — and 2) how to incorporate existing TVP efforts. These should include consultations with representatives from different state geographies, religious and ideological communities, and professional domains (e.g., academia, public health, education, law enforcement), including potential opponents of TVP Support multi-lingual communication, when needed
  • (6) Use these insights to develop or adapt a research- and best-practice-driven Theory of Change (TOC) that encompasses prevention, disruption, and mitigation of targeted violence (in following with the public health approach to violence prevention)
  • (7) Solicit and incorporate feedback on the strategy from external experts (e.g., from out-of-state) and different communities within the state
  • (8) Develop a list of performance and outcome metrics to facilitate process and outcome evaluations

Outputs

  • (1) A list of regional subdivisions across the state (hereafter, “key regions”) that share unique characteristics relevant to TVP (e.g., geography, social and/or economic context, nature of threat, demographic make up)
  • (2) Region-specific, expert- and diversity-informed risk profiles
  • (3) An inventory of existing community resilience and violence prevention resources in the state and key regions
  • (4) Research- and best-practice driven, comprehensive Theory of Change (or strategy)
  • (5) A comprehensive list of performance and outcome metrics for strategy implementation

Outcomes

  • (1) Regional risk profiles accurately assess and reflect local needs and vulnerabilities
  • (2) The state TVP strategy offers clear, evidence-based plan, which implementation partners (can) use as guidance for their TVP efforts
  • (3) The state strategy is supported by relevant demographic groups, including minorities
  • (4) The evolution and improvement of the state TVP strategy can be data-driven

Goal 2: Build a multi-domain, coordinated network to implement the strategy

Objectives

  • (1) Secure participation of key federal, state, and local governmental agencies and non-governmental organizations in strategy implementation (hereafter, “implementation partners”)
  • (2) Outline areas of responsibility for each implementation partner within the network
  • (3) Ensure strong in-network collaboration and communication strategies

Tasks

  • (1) Recruit key government agencies and non-government organizations to participate in strategy implementation
  • (2) Establish a working group of implementation partner representatives
  • (3) The working group revisits, adjusts, and solidifies the strategy and determines and delineates areas of responsibility and complementary objectives for each implementation partner, aligned with the TOC
  • (4) Each implementation partner identifies how the TVP strategy can be incorporated into their existing violence prevention efforts
  • (5) Codify/create and agree on policies that will guide the collaboration within the network
  • (6) Establish a permanent position and hire a network coordinator
  • (7) Convene regular all-partner meetings
  • (8) Coordinate with the Governor’s office

Outputs

  • (1) A diverse network of state agencies and non-governmental organizations as implementation partners
  • (2) Coordination framework for the strategy implementation partners has been established

Outcomes

  • (1) The network of implementation partners incorporates all key areas critical to successful TVP
  • (2) Implementation partners collaborate effectively on implementation of the state TVP strategy

Goal 3: Secure a conducive environment for strategy implementation

Objective 1: Ensure political will and community buy-in

Tasks

  • (1) Develop a strategic communications plan, which includes both advocacy and public messaging efforts on the state-wide TVP and why it is important
  • (2) Integrate messaging in relevant communications from the Governor to the public and state legislature
  • (3) Execute an advocacy campaign to target different levels of leadership (e.g., county, city, state legislature)
  • (4) Conduct outreach to key stakeholder groups to cultivate influential public validators of TVP programming, and provide support to validators accordingly
  • (5) Develop and maintain a public-facing multi-lingual information hub where community members can learn about radicalization to violence, the threat of targeted violence, and state-wide TVP efforts, participants, approaches, network implementation partners, etc.
  • (6) Execute a public messaging campaign that uses a varied set of communication channels (social media, TV, public transportation) and reaches diverse audiences (uses different languages, present in a wide range of localities)

Outputs

  • (1) A comprehensive strategic communications plan
  • (2) An advocacy campaign to recruit political support for the state TVP strategy
  • (3) A wide-reaching and informative public awareness/messaging campaign
  • (4) An up-to-date comprehensive multi-lingual hub for information on the state TVP efforts, strategy, and its implementation

Outcomes

  • (1) A comprehensive strategic communications plan
  • (2) An advocacy campaign to recruit political and community influencer support for the state TVP strategy
  • (3) A wide-reaching and informative public awareness/messaging campaign
  • (4) An up-to-date comprehensive multi-lingual hub for information on the state TVP efforts, strategy, and its implementation

Objective 2: Ensure implementation transparency and civil rights protections of communities and individuals affected by TVP programming

Tasks

  • (1) Ensure open and easy public access to policies and procedures guiding the state-wide efforts and inter-agency collaboration
  • (2) Provide the public with information on state-facilitated TVP activities
  • (3) Develop civil rights monitoring procedures and processes
  • (4) Develop privacy protection procedures and processes
  • (5) Identify and provide trainings on such topics as civil rights protections, cultural understanding and sensitivity, and cross-cultural competence

Outputs

  • (1) Strong information transparency, civil rights protections, and privacy protections policies and procedures

Outcomes

  • (1) State-facilitated TVP network activities are transparent and clear to the public
  • (2) Implementation partners uphold civil rights and privacy protections in their work

Goal 4: Build capacity among key stakeholders and agencies (See Partners & Sectors)

Objective 1: Secure Funding to Provide TVP Programming Implementation and Evaluation Support

Tasks

  • (1) Identify funding sources (e.g., federal, state, foundation) relevant for different areas of TVP programmatic efforts and independent evaluations
  • (2) Offer regular state funding opportunities for TVP programming and independent evaluation
  • (3) Conduct grant development/writing/administration trainings

Outputs

  • (1) A comprehensive list of funding sources to support implementation and evaluation activities in different domains
  • (2) Designated state funds for TVP strategy implementation
  • (3) Implementation partners receive trainings in grant development and administration

Outcomes

  • (1) Implementation partners get the funding to support their work and have it evaluated

Objective 2: Facilitate TVP programming implementation and evaluation efforts

Tasks

  • (1) Identify and make available appropriate program design and implementation supports for each implementation domain (e.g., handbook, trainings, external consultants)
  • (2) Identify and make available appropriate monitoring and evaluation supports for each implementation domain (e.g., handbook, trainings, external consultants)

Outputs

  • (1) A diverse set of program design and implementation supports for implementation partners
  • (2) Evaluation supports for implementation partners

Outcomes

  • (1) Implementation partners are well-equipped for program design and implementation
  • (2) Implementation partners are able to support evaluation efforts by an external partner or conduct their own evaluation

Objective 3: Equip implementation partners with knowledge relevant to targeted violence and best practices in prevention and intervention for different areas of service provision

Tasks

  • (1) Conduct and/or facilitate trainings (e.g., from DHS CP3 Regional Prevention Coordinators) to equip a range of implementation partners in different domains and across geographies with awareness and skills needed to prevent and intervene in targeted violence
  • (2) Establish a permanent “training hub” à la the Colorado Resilience Collaborative
  • (3) Participate and facilitate participation in national and international TVP forums and exchanges (e.g., McCain Institute Prevention Practitioners Network, Strong Cities Network, State Department CVE programs)

Outputs

  • (1) A strong set of comprehensive expert-informed TVP capacity-building supports

Outcomes

  • (1) Implementation partners are well-equipped to pursue implementation of the state TVP strategy in their respective domains

Objective 4: Establish unified systems and provide technologies that will facilitate monitoring and evaluation

Tasks

  • (1) Outline relevant data-related policies and procedures that must guide data collection, storage, and sharing
  • (2) Develop a monitoring and reporting system, where stakeholders can track activities
  • (3) Provide systems for secure data sharing
  • (4) Conduct trainings on data collection, storage, and exchange; protection of privacy and personal identifiable information (PII); and monitoring

Outputs

  • (1) Implementation partners have access to and use a safe and comprehensive monitoring and reporting system

Outcomes

  • (1) Implementation partners feel well-equipped to collect and report progress data
  • (2) Implementation partners safely and regularly report their progress data

II. Primordial Prevention (Reduce Risk Factors)

Goal 5: Reduce and mitigate community and individual risk factors (See Risk Factors)

Objective 1: Support development or adaptation of evidence-based efforts that address community-level risk factors

Tasks

  • (1) Encourage and support the design and implementation of efforts that address community-level risk factors. Examples can include:
    • -Efforts to bring people from different backgrounds together in equal and institutionally-supported environments
    • -Efforts to reduce threat people may experience about the newcomers (e.g., in cases with rapid demographic shifts)
    • -Efforts to humanize the outgroup (political, racial, religious — depending on context)
    • -Efforts to reduce economic inequities
    • -Media literacy programming
    • -Design communal spaces, real-life and digital, that encourage sense of belonging, community, and support

Outputs

  • (1) State-wide multi-domain timely programming addressing a variety of community risk factors is underway

Outcomes

  • (1) Programs decrease/mitigate community risk factors

Objective 2: Support development or adaptation of evidence-based efforts that address individual-level risk factors

Tasks

  • (1) Encourage and support the design and implementation of efforts that address individual-level risk factors. Examples can include:
    • -Efforts that ensure that social services are sufficient for each area’s needs or there is access to mobile teams
    • -Efforts that ensure that mental health services are sufficient for each area’s needs or there is access to mobile teams
    • -Programming/events/supports/opportunities for people of different ages that are a) interesting; b) empowering; c) facilitate the sense of belonging

Outputs

  • (1) State-wide multi-domain timely programming addressing a variety of individual risk factors is underway

Outcomes

  • (1) Programs decrease/mitigate individual risk factors

III. Primary Prevention (Educate)

Goal 6: Educate community on what Targeted Violence is and prevention approaches

Objectives

  1. (1) Educate general public across the state about radicalization to violence, threat of targeted violence, ways to intervene, and other TVP-relevant topics
  2. (2) Increase the number of state- and non-state professionals in different domains — e.g., healthcare, mental health, education, management, Department of Motor Vehicles, waste collection, park and recreation — who receive relevant trainings in radicalization to violence, threat of targeted violence, and TVP
  3. (3) Increase public willingness, and knowledge of how, to seek help for individuals at risk

Tasks

  • (1) Conduct public trainings, workshops, and exercises on:
    • (a) TVP in all state jurisdictions
    • (b) Active bystandership
    • (c) Media literacy for TVP
    • (d) Recognizing the risk factors for, and protective factors against, radicalizing to violence, the warning signs of radicalization, and drivers and grievances that create susceptibility to extremist rhetoric
  • (2) Conduct industry/domain-specific TVP trainings for a diverse set of professionals working in health, mental health, education, management, law enforcement, and other domains deemed relevant

Outputs

  • (1) [A pre-set percentage of the…] General public and members of professional communities across the state receive trainings on TVP-relevant topics

Outcomes

  • (1) Members of general public across the state increase their knowledge of what targeted violence is, prevention approaches, and gain greater agency in violence prevention
  • (2) Members of professional communities across the state increase their domain-specific knowledge of what targeted violence is, prevention approaches, and gain greater agency in violence prevention
  • (3) Prominent community and professional leaders across the state raise awareness and speak against violent extremism

IV. Secondary Prevention (Disrupt)

Goal 7: Ensure Threat Assessment and Management Teams (TAMTs) operate effectively throughout the state

Objective 1: Provide the guidance and supports needed for municipalities, schools, businesses, and all other interested entities to create and operate TAMTs

Tasks

  • (1) Collect and disseminate user-friendly published guides on establishing and conducting TAMTs and vetted threat/risk assessment tools
  • (2) Establish a permanent Advisory Council and/or retain a roster of subject matter experts to provide instructions/guidance to entities interested in establishing TAMTs, as well as case input, if requested
  • (3) Draft template policies and procedures for TAMTs, including guiding principles/charter, codes of conduct, definitions of concerning behaviors, threshold for law enforcement involvement, risk/threat/needs assessment procedures, management plans, etc.
  • (4) Provide template legal/regulatory agreements (e.g., information sharing protocols, NDAs, MOUs) for TAMT member individuals/agencies, based on federal and state laws regarding confidentiality and data security

Outputs

  • (1) Comprehensive, evidence-based supports are available statewide to help set up and conduct TAMTs

Outcomes


Objective 2: Ensure that all key regions of the state are covered by TAMTs; for areas that are not covered, establish mobile TAMTs

Tasks

  • (1) Support establishing TAMTs in all key regions
  • (2) Map out existing TAMTs
  • (3) Establish mobile TAMTs for areas without a possibility of local TAMT coverage

Outputs

  • (1) There is sufficient TAMT coverage in all key regions of the state

Outcomes

  • (1) The TAMT services are readily available in all key regions of the state

Objective 3: Ensure a sufficient locally-rooted and well-resourced aftercare services in support of TAMTs in all key regions

Tasks

  • (1) Map local services available in all key regions; create a service-to-need profile for each jurisdiction
  • (2) Support establishment of missing services, either through government agencies or community grants
  • (3) Provides supports needed to enhance capacity of local services

Outputs

  • (1) Sufficient locally-rooted intervention services needed to support TAMTs in all key regions
  • (2) Implementation partners have the supports they need to provide necessary intervention and aftercare services

Outcomes

  • (1) TAMTs in all regions are able to refer individuals to receive local services and supports
  • (2) The local services are well-equipped to provide high-quality supports in the context of TVP

Objective 4: TAMTs are well-equipped to conduct their work and are able to collaborate effectively

Tasks

  • (1) Offer clear delineation of different TAMT partners’ roles and responsibilities
  • (2) Identify and provide regular trainings (e.g., introductory, refresher) and exercises (e.g., table-tops, lessons-learned) to build capacity of all TAMT teams in the state
  • (3) Consider providing certification to TAMT members to ensure qualification

Outputs

  • (1) TAMT members receive trainings and guidance on how to conduct TAMT work and collaborate effectively

Outcomes

  • (1) TAMT partners in different parts of the state are willing to conduct their work
  • (2) TAMT partners are well-equipped to run TAMTs
  • (3) TAMT partners feel confident in their ability to run TAMTs
  • (4) TAMT partners collaborate effectively

Objective 5: Establish a Comprehensive, User-Friendly, Safe Case Management System Capable of Running Anonymized Reports to Facilitate TAMTS’ Work

Tasks

  • (1) 1) Facilitate a comprehensive, secure, and user-friendly case-management system capable of running anonymized reports

Outputs

  • (1) 1) A comprehensive, user-friendly, safe case management system capable of running anonymized reports to facilitate TAMTs’ work

Outcomes


Objective 6: Establish a secure effective, and diversified referral system

Tasks

  • (1) Establish multiple ways to refer an individual for an assessment through a TAMT (e.g., public referral system, through service providers, through schools)
  • (2) Ensure that people can use multiple outlines (e.g., phone, mobile app) to reach the referral coordinator
  • (3) Ensure that the referral system is accessible to people who speak languages other than English and to people with disabilities
  • (4) Develop a list of locally relevant services and contact information for providers who can make referrals; the operators will refer callers to this list
  • (5) Train operators
  • (6) Ensure that the referral system is secure

Outputs

  • (1) A secure, effective, and diversified referral system

Outcomes

  • (1) People from different domains use the referral system to refer individuals to TAMTs
  • (2) The operators effectively triage public referrals

Objective 7: Ensure that public knows about TAMTs and how to refer individuals deemed at risk

Tasks

  • (1) Conduct a comprehensive, wide-spread multi-media and multi-lingual public awareness campaigns about TAMTs and how to use them

Outputs

  • (1) Public awareness campaign about TAMTs, the referral system, and how to use them is in place

Outcomes

  • (1) The public knows about and trusts the TAMTs, what they do, and how to refer individuals for assessment and services

Objective 8: TAMTS are monitored and evaluated for performance effectiveness

Tasks

  • (1) Conduct (or contract out) monitoring and evaluation of TAMTs to ensure performance effectiveness, legal compliance

Outputs

  • (1) Ongoing TAMT monitoring and evaluation

Outcomes

  • (1) TAMT partners are able to rely on data for learning and improvement

V. Tertiary Prevention (Mitigate)

Goal 8: Foster community resilience in the aftermath of a targeted violence event and prevent cycles of violence

Objectives

  • (1) Develop clear and effective action plans for how implementation partners and other stakeholders should engage to foster community resilience and prevent cycles of violence in the aftermath of a targeted violence event
  • (2) Ensure that culturally-sensitive tailored services are available for individuals, families, and communities
  • (3) Disseminate information to the public about the availability of supports

Tasks

  • (1) Develop action plans
  • (2) Identify what supports may be needed and ensure their availability
  • (3) Provide trainings on service provision in the aftermath of a targeted violence event
  • (4) Disseminate information about the availability of services and supports to the public

Outputs

  • (1) Systems are in place to foster resilience and prevent cycles of violence in the aftermath of a targeted violence event

Outcomes

  • (1) Implementation partners are prepared to engage in needed efforts in the aftermath of a targeted violence event
  • (2) Different agencies complement each other’s efforts in mitigating the consequences of a targeted violence event
  • (3) Public across the state use and find helpful the resources available to them in the aftermath of a targeted violence event

Goal 9: Facilitate rehabilitation of individuals who previously engaged in targeted violence and/or who became at-risk for targeted violence while in correctional facilities

Objectives

  • (1) Support in-prison disengagement programs
  • (2) Support provision of wrap-around aftercare/re-entry services
  • (3) Support implementation of disengagement programs for individuals who previously engaged in targeted violence, with or without recent justice system involvement
  • (4) Prepare communities to receive individuals who previously engaged in targeted violence upon their release

Tasks

  • (1) Incentivize and fund in-prison disengagement and re-entry programs
  • (2) Identify and provide evidence-based tools that assess risk for committing targeted violence among imprisoned populations
  • (3) Summarize state-of-the-art approaches to disengagement and re-entry
  • (4) Train relevant implementation partners, including probation and parole officers
  • (5) Incentivize and support implementation of aftercare re-entry and disengagement services
  • (6) Support and incentivize long-term follow up with former offenders
  • (7) Support programming that bolsters protective factors around an individual upon their release, including family and community connectedness

Outputs

  • (1) Incentives and funding for in- and out-of-prison disengagement and re-entry programs for former targeted violence perpetrators
  • (2) Trainings and evidence-based guidance materials to build implementation partners’ capacity to provide disengagement services and work with former targeted violence offenders and their families

Outcomes

  • (1) Individuals re-entering the society and their families receive services that help prevent recidivism and facilitate disengagement
  • (2) Implementation partners have tools and supports they need to engage in disengagement and to work with former targeted violence offenders and their families
  • (3) There are high-quality in-prison disengagement programs
  • (4) There are high-quality in-prison re-entry preparation programs

VI. Monitoring (Sustain, Learn, Adapt)

Goal 10: Sustain conducive environment

Objective 1: Sustain political will

Tasks

  • (1) Continue various advocacy activities in support of the state-wide TVP efforts
  • (2) Keep political leaders at all levels informed about the current trends in targeted violence, progress of TAMTs, education and awareness-raising efforts, and other TVP activities

Outputs

  • (1) Continuous advocacy activities

Outcomes

  • (1) Policymakers across different levels of state government support the state-led TVP efforts

Objective 2: Sustain public awareness and support

Tasks

  • (1) Implement regular and ongoing public awareness activities and events
  • (2) Ensure that the public have comprehensive information about the TVP efforts state-wide
  • (3) Maintain and regularly update the online information hub

Outputs

  • (1) Continuous public awareness efforts

Outcomes

  • (1) Public from different communities across the state support and trust the state-led TVP efforts

Objective 3: Sustain funding

Tasks

  • (1) Earmark state funds for TVP
  • (2) Ensure that TVP-designated funds are regularly renewed
  • (3) Ensure that TVP funds can supports different TVP implementation domains
  • (4) Foster the capacity of the implementation partners to pursue funding

Outputs

  • (1) Sustained TVP funding and related supports

Outcomes

  • (1) Programming across different implementation domains persists and grows

Goal 11: Support professional development, learning, and improvement

Objective 1: Provide the implementation partners with available up-to-date research evidence and best practices for effective TVP efforts

Tasks

  • (1) Establish a research evidence and best practices online hub
  • (2) Regularly update the hub content with new research evidence and emerging best practices 

Outputs

  • (1) A regularly-updated research evidence and best practices hub

Outcomes

  • (1) Implementation partners use best available research evidence and practices to inform their efforts

Objective 2: Support professional development of the implementation partners and relevant stakeholders

Tasks

  • (1) Organize professional development activities targeting different implementation domains and accessible to implementation partners from different parts of the state and diverse professional and demographic backgrounds.

Outputs

  • (1) Regular professional development activities

Outcomes

  • (1) Implementation partners use best available research evidence and practices to inform their efforts

Objective 3: Monitor the strategy implementation

Tasks

  • (1) Conduct strategy implementation monitoring activities and support timely reporting by implementation partners
  • (2) Coordinate monitoring activities across different implementation partners

Outputs

  • (1) Continuous monitoring of the TVP strategy implementation

Outcomes

  • (1) Gaps in implementation efforts are identified and remedied in a timely manner

Objective 4: Facilitate ongoing learning and improvement activities

Tasks

  • (1) Facilitate learning events to discuss the monitoring results, identify successes and areas for improvement
  • (2) Facilitate improvement events to discuss the learning conclusions and devise actionable recommendations for improvement
  • (3) Work with an external evaluator to facilitate outcome evaluation through adaptable intervention design, support for data collection, etc.
  • (4) Facilitate implementation of the actionable recommendations and strategy updates and improvements

Outputs

  • (1) Ongoing learning and improvement activities

Outcomes

  • (1) Gaps in implementation efforts are identified and remedied in a timely manner


Measures and Scales

For each delineated output and outcome, associated with a goal in the Framework, we suggest measures, or indicators, of success, and corresponding methods/scales to calculate those measures. Please note that the wording of the indicators and scales will need to be adapted to the specific situations and contexts in which they will be administered. The suggestions included here should be used for ideas and illustration.


Additional Information

Definitions

Targeted Violence (per DHS, 2021):

“An activity that involves acts dangerous to human life that are in violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State and that:

  • Involve a degree of planning and
  • Involve a pre-identified target including:
    • Individual(s) based on actual or perceived identity traits or group affiliation or
    • Property based on actual or perceived identity traits or group affiliation;

and appears intended to:

  • Intimidate, coerce, or otherwise impact a broader population beyond the target(s) of the immediate act; or
  • Generate publicity for the perpetrator or his or her grievances; and
  • Occurs within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States; and 
  • Excludes acts of interpersonal violence (acts related to a relationship between two people,  unless the violent act is motivated by the target’s actual or perceived identity or group affiliation , or  moves to public places, or targets people beyond to immediate incident of violence), street or gang-related crimes, violent crimes perpetrated by organized crime syndicates or similar organizations, or financially motivated crimes.”

Purpose/Mission: The ultimate reason for the effort; big picture idea of what one would like to achieve

Goal: A general vision one sets out to achieve in order to contribute to fulfilling the overall purpose

Objective: A specific, actionable step toward achieving the goal

Task: Activities one must take in order to achieve the objective

Output: The result of fulfilling a task or a series of related tasks

Outcome: A (measurable) result of achieving an objective or a goal

Impact: A result of achieving multiple goals and objectives

Measure/Indicator: A metric or series of metrics that facilitate assessment of whether an outcome or an output were attained

Stakeholder: Any governmental agency or non-governmental organization that supports the development, monitoring, and/or implementation of TVP programming (see Stakeholders and Partners)

Implementation partner: Any governmental agency or non-governmental organization that directs or conducts TVP-related programming


Stakeholders & Partners

Homeland Security/Emergency Management

  • Office of the Governor
  • Department of Emergency Management
  • State fusion center

Criminal Justice/Public Safety

  • Department of Justice
  • Department of Public Safety
  • Department of Corrections
  • Department of Probation and Parole

Non-Government

  • Association of School Boards
  • Educational institutions (private schools, colleges, universities)
  • Mental health providers
  • Social services providers (e.g., suicide prevention, re-entry, victims services, refugee resettlement/immigrant support)
  • Community groups (e.g., faith, ethnic, neighborhood, veterans, at-risk youth, violence prevention, civil/human rights)

Law Enforcement/Fusion Center

  • State police
  • State fusion center
  • County Sheriff’s offices

Health and Human Services

  • Department of Public Health
  • Department of Mental Health
  • Department of Human Services
  • Department of Veterans Affairs
  • Human Rights Commission

Education

  • Department of Education
  • State University system (subject matter experts, evaluators)

Risk Factors

References

  • Wolfowicz et al, “Cognitive and behavioral radicalization: A systematic review of the putative risk and protective factors” (Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2021)
  • Smith, “Risk Factors and Indicators Associated with Radicalization to Terrorism in the United States: What Research Sponsored by the National Institute of Justice Tells Us” (National Institute of Justice, June 2018)
  • “Governor’s Roadmap to Preventing Targeted Violence” (National Governors Association, 2021)

Examples

Community

  • Segregation
  • Political polarization
  • Economic strain
  • Demographic shifts

Individual

  • Social isolation
  • Loss of meaning/significance
  • Employment prospects
  • Mental health
  • Suicidality
  • Experiences of trauma

References
  • “Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO) Fiscal Year 2021 Targeted Violence and Terrorism Prevention (TVTP) Grant Program,” DHS Center for Prevention Programs and Partnerships (April 2021)
  • “Governor’s Roadmap to Preventing Targeted Violence,” National Governors Association (2021)
  • “Interventions to Prevent Targeted Violence and Terrorism: A Practical Guide for the US Prevention Practitioners Network,” McCain Institute/Institute for Strategic Dialogue (Oct 2021)
  • “Ohio School Threat Assessment Training: Reference Guide,” Office of Ohio Attorney General Dave Yost/Ohio Peace Officer Training Academy (February 2020)
  • “Price, Cristofer, Julie Williams, Laura Simpson, J. Jastrzab, and Carrie Markovitz. “”National evaluation of Youth Corps: Findings at follow-up.”” Washington, DC: Corporation for National and Community Service (2011). Available at:
  • “Targeted Violence and Terrorism Prevention: What are Local Prevention Frameworks,” DHS Center for Prevention Programs and Partnerships (Ryan Garfinkel presentation, September 2021)
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Methodology

To develop the proposed KPI library, RAND followed a multi-step process.

In order to identify what outputs, outcomes, and impacts should be included in the library and how to measure them, the research team first had to determine what processes and activities such performance indicators would help assess.

As the states in NGA Policy Academy and beyond were still in the process of developing their comprehensive TVP strategies, as a first step the team set out to develop an illustrative framework outlining the possible goals, objectives, and related activities that the states could pursue in their TVP efforts. To develop this framework, the team reviewed literatures on TVP, existing frameworks from DHS and various states, and conducted interviews with TVP experts from academic, practice, and policy domains. The team synthesized the collected information and organized it within the widely-accepted public health approach to targeted violence prevention that DHS espouses. The team proposed what goals, objectives, and tasks the states may pursue at each level of the public health model for TVP.

As the next step, RAND developed a list of outputs, outcomes, and impacts that would help assess the extent to which the goals, objectives, and tasks were achieved or accomplished. In doing so, where possible, the team used the suggestions from the literature and interviews; where such information was not available, researchers suggested self-developed indicators.

Finally, RAND conducted an additional round of literature reviews and interviews to identify possible ways to measure the proposed performance indicators. In this step, the team prioritized published validated scales; when these were not available, the team proposed scales and approaches commonly used in practice communities or developed their own.

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