Secretary-General Emphasizes Local, Global Peace Contexts Quickly Becoming More Challenging
Amid rising geopolitical tensions, spreading insecurity and escalating climate catastrophes, the Security Council must act early, engage strategically and speak with one voice to mobilize the international community’s political and financial support and foster the commitment of conflict actors to secure peace, delegates heard today during the Security Council’s open debate on integrating effective resilience-building in peace operations.
United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres underscored that the local and global contexts in which peace operations function are becoming more challenging by the day. “We must keep pace to keep peace,” he urged, calling on the international community to deepen engagement with local communities and promote more responsive inclusive Governments and institutions; bolster the leadership of women and youth; apply a more integrated and holistic approach to building resilience and sustaining peace; and scale up funding and strengthen partnerships with international financial institutions.
Martha Ama Akyaa Pobee, Assistant Secretary-General for Africa in the Departments of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs and Peace Operations, stressed that peace operations need clear, realistic and up-to-date mandates, with well-identified priorities, adequate sequencing and flexibility to evolve over time. United Nations country teams play a critical role in supporting countries with a long-term perspective, she said, adding that this is especially important during transitions such as in Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia and Guinea-Bissau in the recent past, and the Democratic Republic of Congo in the near future.
Bankole Adeoye, Commissioner for Political Affairs and Peace and Security, African Union Commission, said the complex challenges faced by the Sahel, “the underbelly of insecurity in Africa today”, and coastal West African States require coordinated multiple responses that address both unfolding threats and structural causes. He underscored the need for adequate, predictable, flexible and sustainable funding, through United Nations-assessed contributions; committed funds from bilateral partners; and programmatic funding to United Nations country teams.
Mary Robinson, Chair of The Elders, said the war on Ukraine has fully exposed the inability of the Council to respond to an aggression by a permanent member against a non-nuclear, sovereign State. Expressing support for the principle of enabling regional organizations, such as the African Union, to take a leading role in conflict prevention and resolution, she stressed that peace operations must draw on and complement the insights and experience of staff working in all parts of the Organization at the country level.
Also briefing the Council was Karin Landgren, Executive Director of the Security Council Report, who observed that the Council has moved towards greater acknowledgement of underlying causes and drivers of conflict in its discussions and in mandating. Underscoring the need to safeguard peace operations’ hard-fought achievements, she said Council members could conduct visiting missions to countries where peace operations have closed and invite the country concerned to present progress in areas of the former mandate at one-, three- and five-year marks after mission closure.
During the open debate, nearly 50 ministers and representatives — some from conflict-afflicted States or regions — shared their perspectives and ideas on how to enhance the Organization’s peace operations so it can effectively build resilience in the vulnerable countries where they operate. Many speakers highlighted the critical and oft repeated need to tackle root causes and drivers of conflict and called on the Council, in its ongoing consideration of those issues, to actively consult with the Peacebuilding Commission.
Shirley Ayorkor Botchwey, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration of Ghana, which holds the Council presidency in November, was among those who urged coherent action across the United Nations system, targeted at the resilience-building agenda for sustainable peace. United Nations peace operations must be urgently reconfigured to ensure a balance between actions aimed at restoring peace, including through combating terrorism, and measures to address the underlying causes of conflict, she said, calling on the Council to take up the recommendation of the High-level Independent Panel on Peace Operations in that regard.
Echoing that point was Kenya’s representative, who emphasized that the Council cannot afford to dissociate peace operations from counter-terrorism, especially in the protection of civilians and provision of a basic level of security in countries where it is deployed. Noting that peacekeeping is an innovation of the Council that was not contemplated when the Charter of the United Nations was first agreed, he stressed that it must continue to innovate. Highlighting his country’s long experience as a troop contributor, he called on the Council to embrace United Nations-assessed contributions to support African Union operations.
Ireland’s representative was among many delegates who emphasized that women and youth must be placed front and centre of national and regional responses right at the start, not as an afterthought. For this reason, his country has made the women, peace and security agenda a key focus throughout its time on the Council, he said.
Brazil’s representative said building resilience in vulnerable countries is necessary; however, achieving this goal must not be a burden placed solely on peace operations. Joining other delegations, he pointed out that the peacebuilding role must be balanced with realistic and clear mandates, cautioning that excessively ambitious, vague and open-ended mandates can result in frustration among partners and the population in the host country.
China’s representative emphasized that peacebuilding efforts must be integrated into efforts to foster development, pointing to steps taken to that end by the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) and the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO), where the Deputy Head of Mission also functions as Resident Coordinator, enabling the integration of development and security concerns.
Several delegates — including Egypt, Austria and Japan — called for greater cooperation with the Peacebuilding Commission. Canada’s representative highlighted that the strength of the Peacebuilding Commission is that everything is done at the request and with the consent of the countries and regions. “The PBC [Peacebuilding Commission] speaks with countries, not just about them,” he emphasized, adding that there is deep value in the advice that the Commission can offer to the Council.
On that note, many speakers underscored the importance of respecting national and local ownership and priorities in peacebuilding efforts. Sudan’s representative, drawing on his country’s experience, said peacebuilding efforts should endeavour to achieve peace by linking the international peacebuilding process to local political and cultural and social actors. He called on United Nations country teams, as well as international financial institutions, to provide the necessary support for the country’s transition and peacebuilding.
A representative of the European Union joined other delegations in stressing the need for sustainable funding. The bloc is among the biggest contributors to the Peacebuilding Fund, providing more than 60 per cent of funding to the mechanism, he added. Portugal’s representative said her country has supported Mozambique in tackling the armed conflict in Cabo Delgado, providing training to its armed forces as well as support for its justice, security and defence sectors. She expressed hope that a decision will be made soon to ensure predictable and sustainable financing for African Union-led operations
Also speaking today were representatives of the United States, Gabon, India, Mexico, United Kingdom, Norway, Albania, France, Russian Federation, United Arab Emirates, Republic of Korea, Italy, Slovenia, Switzerland, Thailand, Malta, Ecuador, Sweden (on behalf of Nordic Countries), Slovakia, Netherlands, Chile, Tunisia, South Africa, Algeria, Peru, Ukraine, Bangladesh, Poland, Morocco, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Argentina, Indonesia, Lebanon, Nigeria and Germany.
The meeting began at 10:03 a.m., suspended at 1:07 p.m., resumed at 3 p.m. and ended at 4:50 p.m.
ANTÓNIO GUTERRES, Secretary-General of the United Nations, said the local and global contexts in which the Organization’s peace operations function are becoming more challenging by the day. Rising geopolitical tensions; spreading insecurity; escalating climate catastrophes; worsening hunger and poverty; deepening inequalities; spreading violent misogyny, misinformation and disinformation; and waning trust in institutions are fueling political tensions, economic despair and social unrest. Unconstitutional changes of Government are proliferating alongside inter-State conflicts, invasions and wars, while entrenched divides between world Powers continue to limit the international community’s ability to collectively respond. The chasm between humanitarian needs and humanitarian assistance keeps widening as human rights and the rule of law are under assault. Meanwhile, the international community can barely comprehend and lacks the global architecture to contain the risks of cyberwarfare and lethal autonomous weapons. “Our world is transforming at breakneck speed. We must keep pace to keep peace,” he urged.
Peacebuilding gains on the African continent and elsewhere are reversing, he pointed out, noting that the New Agenda for Peace proposed in his report Our Common Agenda will prioritize investment in prevention and peacebuilding. United Nations peace operations must be empowered and equipped to play a greater role in sustaining peace at all stages of conflict and in all its dimensions. This requires committed, inclusive national ownership that considers the needs of the most vulnerable, and, above all, development and respect for all human rights — the world’s best preventive tools against violent conflict and instability. Highlighting priorities for action, he said the international community must deepen engagement with local communities and promote more responsive inclusive Governments and institutions. Peace operations, which are manifestations of the political leverage of the Security Council, create space for dialogue and political participation, reduce community violence, secure the delivery of basic services, encourage reconciliation and promote equal access to justice. He urged quicker and more effective action to address needs and grievances, as well as a strengthened whole-of-society approach and increased investments that build trust, community engagement and cohesion.
The international community must also bolster the leadership of women and youth in shaping the future of their countries and ensure they benefit from peace and development gains, he continued. As securing women’s rights and equal participation in decision-making is essential to building and maintaining peace, the United Nations is investing in partnerships with local women leaders and peacebuilders, including by increasing the number of women personnel at all levels. The Organization is also pursuing policies that guarantee full gender parity and women leadership, including through quotas across election monitoring, security sector reform, disarmament and justice systems. The voices of young people articulating peacebuilding priorities must also be heard loud and clear. The United Nations Youth, Peace and Security agenda, together with the African Union’s 2020 Continental Framework on Youth, Peace and Security, are important complementary tools to amplify these critical voices.
He said that another priority is a more integrated and holistic approach to building resilience and sustaining peace, with tailored investments across the humanitarian-development-peace nexus. That means strengthening synergies across the range of peace work from conflict prevention and resolution to peacekeeping, peacebuilding and long-term development; deepening partnerships between the United Nations, African Union and other regional organizations, as well as with international and regional financial institutions; and better integrating the work of United Nations country teams mandates with those of peace operations, particularly in transition contexts. Turning to the crucial question of finance, he said prevention and peacebuilding are cost-effective and save lives, yet the international community continues to underinvest in peace. The General Assembly’s Financing for Peacebuilding reflects a commitment to find solutions for increased and more sustainable funding. The Peacebuilding Fund continues to be an invaluable resource, he added, noting that in 2021 it provided $150 million to 25 countries in Africa. Needs far outpace resources however, he pointed out, stressing that funding must be scaled up and partnerships with international financial institutions strengthened.
“The Security Council plays a critical role in supporting the efforts of United Nations peace operations to build resilience and sustain peace. By acting early, engaging strategically and speaking with one voice, the Council can mobilize the international community’s political and financial support and foster the commitment of conflict actors to secure peace,” he said.
MARTHA AMA AKYAA POBEE, Assistant Secretary-General for Africa in the Departments of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs and Peace Operations, stated that the nature of today’s crises calls for renewed efforts to preserve the trust of the affected civilians in international and regional partners, particularly the United Nations, to help preserve peace. To ensure the success of peace operations, she stressed the importance of inclusive strategies that consider the entire spectrum peace of — from prevention, conflict resolution and peacekeeping to peacebuilding and development. This will also require the mobilization and engagement of all related actors, she added, working together in an integrated and coordinated manner.
Pointing out that the Council has a vital role in this regard, she stressed that peace operations need clear, realistic and up-to-date mandates, with well-identified priorities, adequate sequencing and flexibility to evolve over time. Noting that building resilience requires responses that are part of wider political strategies and are mindful of the socioeconomic realities and needs, she highlighted that the ongoing assessment of the high-level independent panel in the Sahel should offer some useful elements. While solutions should be based on a national vision and be inclusive, she emphasized that “truly holistic and integrated solutions cannot rest on expediency”. They must recognize the needs and contributions of all segments of society, including women and youth, as agents of peace and developments, she added.
She went on to state that the United Nations country teams play a critical role in supporting countries with a long-term perspective, and this is especially important during transitions such as in Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia and Guinea Bissau in the recent past, and the Democratic Republic of Congo in the near future. She further highlighted the need to engage in strong collective action and enhance collaboration and partnerships with regional and subregional organizations, financial institutions, civil society and the business community. Stressing the importance of working closely with financial institutions, she underscored that the World Bank’s Gulf of Guinea Northern Region Social Cohesion Project offers a good example of how they can complement United Nations efforts.
BANKOLE ADEOYE, Commissioner for Political Affairs and Peace and Security, African Union Commission, addressing the Council by teleconference from Abuja, where he had been attending a forum on African Union Peace Support Operations and the African Standby Force, noted that drivers of conflict on the continent include structural economic dependence, climate shocks and insecurity, uneven development and sociopolitical and economic exclusion. The resultant high-level of discontent needs to be tackled through rapid structural transformation, he said. Against this backdrop, the Council could adopt a whole-of-organization approach in implementing mandates for peace operations in Africa, which are multidimensional in nature, he said, underscoring the need to ensure that country teams accompany deployed missions as early as possible.
He went on to outline other ways to accompany critical political transitions with a view to building resilience, spotlighting the African Union’s collaborative arrangement with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to create a facility for accompanying critical political transitions. He urged Council members to support the African Union-United Nations facility to support inclusive transition, and expressed hope that the upcoming high-level inter-institutional consultations between the two bodies in December will strengthen effective collaboration. The Union engages meaningfully with regional mechanisms to enhance its ability to enhance rapid response to threats in their respective subregions, while engaging collaboratively with the United Nations and other partners, including in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and in Somalia, he said. He added that it is also committed to strategic engagement with the Organization on early warning and conflict prevention, in line with the Joint United Nations-African Union Framework for Enhancing Partnership in Peace and Security, signed in 2017.
Turning to the Sahel, which he called “the underbelly of insecurity in Africa today”, he said the complex challenges faced by that region and coastal West African States require coordinated multiple responses that address both unfolding threats and structural causes. In coastal West African countries, which experience unconstitutional changes of Government, support is needed for resilience. To this end, he underscored the need for adequate, predictable, flexible and sustainable funding, through United Nations-assessed contributions; committed funds from bilateral partners; and programmatic funding to United Nations country teams. Further, adequate resources should be provided to the planned African Union-UNDP critical political transitions facility, to support its efforts to ensure the territorial integrity and institutional resilience building of the affected States.
MARY ROBINSON, Chair of The Elders, the group of independent global leaders founded by Nelson Mandela 15 years ago, recalled Kofi Annan’s words that “the human family will not enjoy development without security, will not enjoy security without development and will not enjoy either without respect for human rights.” Calling on the Security Council to play a more proactive role and promote a “whole of UN” approach that supports just and sustainable peace, she said that peace operations must draw on and complement the insights and experience of staff working in all parts of the Organization at the country level. As a former Special Envoy of the Secretary-General to the Great Lakes in Africa, she said, she has no illusions as to how challenging this is, “but am equally aware of the risks of failure and fatalism”.
The war on Ukraine, she continued, has fully exposed the inability of the Council to respond to an aggression by a permanent member against a non-nuclear, sovereign State. Expressing support for the principle of enabling regional organizations such as the African Union to take a leading role in conflict prevention and resolution, she also underscored the importance of a more holistic focus on the underlying causes of conflict, from political and economic instability to poverty, inequality and marginalization of minorities within countries. Welcoming the women, peace and security agenda, she pointed out that the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women’s (UN-Women) analysis shows that in cases where females were able to exercise a strong influence on the negotiation process, there was a much higher chance that an agreement would be reached. Noting that peace missions are pushing for greater representation of women in national security and defense sectors, she called for action to counter reprisals that women peacebuilders and human rights defenders face.
Highlighting the climate crisis as a threat multiplier and driver of conflict, she noted some modest steps towards integrating climate considerations into peacebuilding operations, for instance with the appointment of an environment adviser to the United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM). Similar roles should be considered for other peace operations, she stressed, noting that in 2021, 6 of the 10 biggest peace operations, and over 80 per cent of personnel, were deployed in countries highly exposed to climate change. Somalia is facing its third famine in 11 years, she said, adding that on 29 October at least 100 people were killed by explosions in Mogadishu, but the world barely noticed. “These were mothers, fathers, sons, daughters, grandparents leaving grieving families, targeted by Al-Shabaab extremists,” she said, adding that the links between conflict and climate are also evident in Tigray and northern Ethiopia. Calling for sustained engagement to tackle the root causes of conflict, she called on the Council to focus on building a just and sustainable peace.
KARIN LANDGREN, Executive Director of the Security Council Report, said peace operations fit for contemporary times need new approaches that include responsiveness to the underlying causes and drivers of conflict. The Council has moved towards greater acknowledgement of those unaddressed structural factors, including non-traditional threats, in its discussions and in its mandating, she noted. In Haiti, the 15-member organ has increasingly voiced concern about the deleterious effects of gang violence and other criminal activities and recently established a sanctions regime while also stressing that addressing the root causes of instability in the country requires political solutions. Many past Council resolutions have referred to organized crime, as well as corruption, in Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Somalia, South Sudan and Iraq, among other situations, she pointed out. In addition, the Council has frequently supported transitional justice initiatives, including in the peace operations in the Central African Republic and Colombia, and has associated this area of work with addressing root causes of conflict. Stressing that every peace operation needs to consider factors that could trigger or re-trigger conflict, she recalled the Council’s resolution that cited social exclusion in Liberia.
Not every structural problem will lead to conflict, however, she pointed out, noting that the Council’s consideration of those issues is part and parcel of bringing resilience-building to the forefront of peace operations. Underscoring the need to safeguard peace operations’ hard-fought achievements, she said the Council could “check back in” with the country concerned from time to time and invite it to present on progress in areas of the former mandate at one-, three- and five-year marks after mission closure, for example. Council members could also conduct visiting missions to countries where peace operations have closed. Integrating structural and societal factors into the work of peace operations must be based on understanding not just the country’s history but also its politics, conflict, economy and the levers of informal power within its society. The recommendations of the 2015 High-Level Independent Panel on Peace Operations, which observed that “more often than not” peace operations did not address “root causes and conflict drivers” effectively, remain highly relevant to devising better approaches to peace operations. While no peace operation is expected to address every issue, the international community must reflect and speak to the full intricate context in which those operations intervene, she said.
SHIRLEY AYORKOR BOTCHWEY, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration of Ghana, stated that there is an overwhelming and urgent need for United Nations peace operations to be reconfigured to ensure a balance between “kinetic” actions aimed at restoring peace, including through combating terrorism, and “non-kinetic” measures to address the underlying causes of conflict. She also called on the Council to deal with the recommendation from the High-level Independent Panel on Peace Operations’ report on the need for new modalities to deal with terrorism and violent extremism. Noting that women and youth are disproportionately impacted by conflict and violence, she pointed to the need to operationalize the Council’s agendas on youth and women, making them essential pillars of the United Nations support for resilience-building. It is important for this Council to encourage coherent action across the United Nations system targeted at the resilience-building agenda for sustainable peace, she stressed.
LINDA THOMAS GREENFIELD (United States) underlined the importance of ensuring that modern United Nations peace operations are multidimensional, welcoming in this regard, the Secretary-General’s Action for Peacekeeping (A4P) initiative. She affirmed the vital role of peace operations in supporting local stakeholders in effectuating political solutions, and in tackling the root causes of conflict. Touching on the Council’s efforts to implement a longer-term strategic vision to accompany peace operations in Mali and South Sudan, she said that leaders of such operations say they can function much more effectively when they have a clear sense of what the Council expects them to achieve. However, she emphasized the need for the support and cooperation of host countries in the full implementation of mandates. Further, such operations cannot alone address the drivers of conflict, which are generational challenges and require many actors to come to the table, she said, underscoring the need for the meaningful inclusion of women and girls, as well as young people. The Peacebuilding Commission also plays an important convening role to play in international peacebuilding efforts.
HERMAN IMMONGAULT, Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs of Gabon, highlighting the Secretary-General’s reforms aimed at reducing fragmentation within the United Nations peace and security architecture as well as within peacekeeping operations themselves, called on the Council to consider new security trends and the changing nature of conflict. It is essential to strengthen the resilience of peacekeeping operations, he said, calling for a multidimensional approach, due diligence on human rights and better management of “blue helmets”. Strengthening cooperation between the Council and the Peacebuilding Commission is vital, he said, highlighting the need for improved transitions. Rebuilding a county is a delicate exercise, he said, and noting that his country hosts a subregional mechanism that aims at early warning and prevention of conflict in central Africa, called for capacity-building and financial resources to ensure that this mechanism can be fully operational.
THOMAS BYRNE, Minister of State for European Affairs of Ireland, emphasized that for peace to be resilient and sustainable, it must be inclusive and locally owned. As such, his country has made the women, peace and security agenda a key focus throughout its time on the Council. The youth, peace and security agenda also has the potential to be transformative, he added, stressing the need for proper investment in that regard. Women and youth must be placed front and centre of national and regional responses right at the start, not as an afterthought, he underscored. Further, human rights violations must be addressed, he said, noting that in so doing, violence and insecurity, radicalization and the growth of terrorism can be mitigated. The Council has increasingly incorporated climate-related security risks into its peacekeeping mandates and its important work in that regard must continue. The international community must enhance efforts to ensure adequate, predictable and sustained funding for peacebuilding.
VINAY KWATRA, Foreign Secretary of India, spoke of the changing, complex nature of conflict, where the security environment is fragmented, and characterized by breakdown in the rule of law, absence of effective State institutions, proliferation of illicit economic activities and illegal exploitation of natural resources. Peace operations now handle multidimensional tasks, including capacity-building of host Governments in the security sector and monitoring of human rights violations, which often comes at the cost of ignoring the underlying causes of conflict. He underlined that peace operations can create conditions for political and social processes to take hold, but not replace them. Noting that India is among the largest troop-contributing countries to United nations peace operations, he pointed out that attempts to extend the role of peacekeeping missions to peacebuilding tasks will strengthen neither and weaken both. Further, he underscored the need for national authorities to drive priorities to sustain peace, and for peacebuilding efforts to be given predictable and sustainable financing.
MARTIN KIMANI (Kenya), expressing support for the Secretary-General’s A4P and A4P+ initiatives, said that peacekeepers are increasingly pitted against determined terrorist groups. Noting that peacekeeping is an innovation of the Council that was not contemplated when the Charter of the United Nations was first agreed, he stressed that it must continue to innovate. The Council cannot afford to dissociate peace operations from counter-terrorism, especially in the protection of civilians and the provision of a basic level of security in countries where it is deployed. Highlighting his country’s long experience as a troop contributor, he said that voluntary and ad hoc arrangements hinder proper planning and operations. Calling on the Council to move beyond “circuitous debates”, he said it must embrace United Nations-assessed contributions to support African Union operations. Stressing that the safety of peacekeepers is critical but so is the protection of civilians, he underscored the need for deliberate, credible and continuous analysis of the conflict environment. “The conflict map should always be up to date and ready for peacekeepers to have a clear operational picture,” he said.
JUAN RAMÓN DE LA FUENTE RAMÍREZ (Mexico) said that, to address and prevent conflicts, structural causes, such as exclusion, poverty, discrimination, inequality and corruption, must be addressed. This can only be achieved through strengthening rule of law and governance, sustainable development and national reconciliation and ensuring victims’ rights to justice. In that regard, peacekeeping operations must truly include all sectors of society in every step of peace processes. The way transitions are organized is a determining factor in whether they lead to stability or relapse into violence, he pointed out, calling on the Council to ensure that mandates of peace operations are sufficiently flexible and cover post-conflict phases. Also needed are further understanding of the linkages between peacekeeping and peacebuilding, strengthening support for disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes; security sector reforms; transitional justice; and mental health services and psychosocial support for victims. A peace operation will have been successful if, upon its departure, it leaves behind sufficiently robust national structures to provide basic services and guarantee the rights of the population, he said.
GENG SHUANG (China) underlined the need for peace operations to focus on their core mandate: resolving hotspot issues to foster peace, despite the increasingly wide-ranging nature of their responsibilities, and should strengthen cooperation with United Nations and regional organizations to this end. Support must be lent to disarmament, demobilization and reintegration efforts and to promote social reconciliation, to provide a basis for sustainable peace. Further, peacebuilding efforts must be integrated into efforts to foster development, which is the “cornerstone of peace and security”, he said, touching on steps taken to this end by the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) and the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO), where the Deputy Head of Mission also functions as Resident Coordinator, enabling the integration of development and security concerns. He underlined the need for strengthened coordination across United Nations agencies to better support countries’ needs, including through assistance to humanitarian agencies to provide security guarantees. He went on to recall a presidential statement presented by China at the Council in August, which called on the Secretary-General to present a report by 31 August 2023 to assess peace operations and provide recommendations in this regard.
BARBARA WOODWARD (United Kingdom), noting that peace operations need to better coordinate with wider peacebuilding work, stressed that they need the capabilities to understand conflict drivers and feed analysis into the wider United Nations strategy. Highlighting her country’s support for Peace and Development Advisers, whose expertise could be used in mission settings, she said the Council must also encourage full use of the Organization’s strategic planning and operating frameworks, and instruments such as the Global Focal Point for the Rule of Law. Coordinated investment in peace is critical, she said, adding that the Peacebuilding Fund is a key tool for bringing together different parts of the Organization’s system. Further, investing in prevention is essential, as is strengthening women’s roles in conflict prevention and resolution for lasting peace and security, she added.
MONA JUUL (Norway) stressed that support for political solutions must be at the centre of all peacekeeping, pointing out that lasting peace can neither be achieved nor sustained by military means alone. The Council must enhance the link between peacekeeping and peacebuilding when planning and mandating peace operations, she emphasized, noting that the current efforts in the Sahel illustrate the need for holistic solutions to deal with growing insecurity, while addressing root causes of conflict. Innovative thinking and renewed partnerships — bringing out the best of the United Nations, African Union and regional complementarity — are also needed. As such, her country strongly and actively supports the United Nations and African Union-initiated High-Level Panel on Security, Development and Governance in the Sahel. For truly sustainable peace, the Council must also ensure that peace operations facilitate the participation of women. Local women, women’s organizations and civil society groups’ unique insights and intergenerational knowledge should be included in all stages of developing preventive policies, including early warning mechanisms.
FERIT HOXHA (Albania), stressing that conflict prevention has remained a “weak and frustrating point” of this Council and the entire Organization, stressed the need to do integrate various dimensions including security, development and human rights into the core United Nations missions. Noting that local ownership is crucial, he stated that dialogue with all interested parties, including local communities, is key to successful peacebuilding actions. Pointing to the importance of strategic communication and transparency of information, he emphasized that any distortion of information may prove detrimental to peacekeeping efforts. Spotlighting the Regional Youth Cooperation Organization, which aims to promote reconciliation among youth in the Western Balkans, he underscored the need to include the promotion of women into peace and security agendas. On climate action, he noted that “failing to see a link between climate change and security is sleepwalking towards the fire”.
NICOLAS DE RIVIÈRE (France) underlined the need for enhanced cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union, spotlighting in this regard the two organizations’ conferring responsibility to former Niger President Mahamadou Issoufou to assess the future security architecture for the Sahel. France supports regular assessed contributions for United Nations peacekeeping operations. He stressed the need for root causes of conflict to be addressed, including through climate change mitigation, security sector reform and strengthening the rule of law for effective institutions. As well, regulating the exploitation of natural resources pose security and economic growth challenges, and must be integrated into the mandates of peace operations. Turning to justice, he underscored the need to fight against impunity. Turning to the fight against terrorism, he said it raises the question: “Where does United Nations action stop?” The question pertains to geographic limits, and the life cycle of peace operations in a transitional context, he said, emphasizing the need for continuity to be ensured between operations and actors, including through the Peacebuilding Fund.
JOÃO GENÉSIO DE ALMEIDA FILHO (Brazil), stressing that peace and development are interdependent and mutually reinforcing, said that economic growth and development are necessary to give people hope and to help reduce the appeal of violent ideologues. Strengthening international cooperation, investing in productive capacities and combating poverty and hunger are as essential to addressing conflict as security considerations, he said. Building resilience in vulnerable countries is necessary; however, achieving this goal must not be a burden placed solely on peace operations, he underscored. Pointing out that the peacebuilding role must be balanced with realistic and clear mandates, he cautioned that excessively ambitious, vague and open-ended mandates can result in frustration among partners and in the population in the host country. Noting that the Peacebuilding Commission is well suited to work as a platform to promote greater coordination among relevant partners, he added that focusing solely on the security dimension of conflicts will lead to endlessly renewing peacekeeping mandates.
ANNA M. EVSTIGNEEVA (Russian Federation) stressed that without political solutions, it will be impossible to agree on clear and realistic mandates, gain the host country’s trust, or ensure effective support to regional efforts. Noting the expansion of peacekeeping mandates through various secondary and non-core tasks such as those related to human rights, social, gender and climate, she said peacekeeping operations, as a result, have become part of conflict management rather than a tool for its resolution. On addressing the growing threat of terrorism, she said the problem requires a military solution, which can be provided only through national efforts and, if need be, with bilateral or regional assistance. Moreover, all countries impacted in a region must be united in addressing the problem, despite any political differences. African States are justified in raising the issue of the provision of financial assistance by the United Nations in those efforts, she said, noting her delegation’s readiness to discuss the matter.
MOHAMED ISSA ABUSHAHAB (United Arab Emirates) stressed that tailored, clear, and realistic transition strategies require extensive coordination with a variety of local actors, including women, youth, religious and community leaders. Noting that peace operations can lead to improved, lasting, and positive outcomes, including by building reliable infrastructure that can benefit host communities after the drawdown of peace operations, he said this is particularly relevant as unprecedented droughts, heat waves, floods and other extreme weather events continue to exponentially increase. He further stressed the importance of promoting a coordinated and integrated multilateral response, ensuring coordination with all actors, including the Council, the Peace Building Commission as well as regional and subregional organisations. The legacy of peace operations is “not only what is accomplished when they are there, but what happens when they leave”, he concluded.
JOONKOOK HWANG (Republic of Korea), addressing complex security challenges faced by peace operations, highlighted the need to build resilience through cooperation with local populations, while respecting their ownership and priorities. In this regard, he noted that Korean peacekeepers in South Sudan have been conducting civilian and military coordination activities within their mandates of protection and reconstruction, including vocational training in sectors such as agriculture, carpentry, electricity and construction. He underlined the need to strengthen the Humanitarian-Development-Peace nexus to address the root causes of conflicts. Further, he highlighted the need for early engagement in peacebuilding, encouraging the Council to actively consult with the Peacebuilding Commission in drafting and adjusting mandates, and coming up with political guidelines. All such efforts require adequate, predictable, and sustained financing. As the host country of the 2021 Seoul Peacekeeping Ministerial, the Republic of Korea reaffirms its support for building and sustaining peace in all phases of the peace continuum.
MAURIZIO MASSARI (Italy), aligning himself with the European Union, called on the international community to enforce and embrace the strategic transition of peacekeeping operations. Noting the multiple factors behind conflict, from extremism to food insecurity, he called for a shift from the traditional paradigm to implementation of coherent strategies endorsed in A4P. Stressing the importance of clear and achievable mandates and close cooperation with the host country, he also highlighted the need for full participation of women at all stages of the peace process. While peacekeeping cannot address all factors leading to a conflict, it can pave the way for long-standing peace and must be designed to achieve conducive conditions, he said. Further, peacekeeping and peacebuilding must be considered complementary, he said, adding that peace processes do not end when the last soldier leaves. The Council must make use of rule of law missions, special political missions and regionally based envoys, he said.
OSAMA MAHMOUD ABDELKHALEK MAHMOUD (Egypt) said the Council must pay greater attention to the peacebuilding component of its activities, considering the context and the needs expressed. The Council’s approach to peacebuilding must be holistic and consider regional and cross-border dimensions, support local capacities and provide services to people in cross border areas. He called on the Council to benefit from the advisory role of the Peacebuilding Commission, which has vast and varied experience, including in addressing root causes of conflict. Given the nature of current challenges, the United Nations must deepen partnerships with regional and subregional organizations. The partnership between the United Nations and African Union is central to tackling challenges, including combatting terrorism. Urging sufficient, predictable and lasting financing to support countries in post-conflict situations, he called on Member States to allow peacebuilding efforts to benefit from assessed contributions in the regular budget of the United Nations.
BOŠTJAN MALOVRH (Slovenia), aligning himself with the European Union, stated that an innovative and more integrated approach to peace operations is needed to effectively address root causes of conflict and build resilient societies at a very early stage of peacebuilding. Noting that cooperation and partnership, with support to regional, national and local efforts and ensuring national ownership, are essential in building trust and resilience, he said such efforts should also include capacity-building, promoting and protecting human rights and access to health services and education, socioeconomic development as well as establishing early warning and early response mechanisms. Stressing that women and youth as agents of change have an essential role in the pursuit of lasting peace and resilient societies, he emphasized that lenses of women, peace and security as well as youth, peace and security should be applied when supporting regional, national and local efforts.
PASCALE BAERISWYL (Switzerland) stated that, while peacekeeping missions can encourage violence prevention that addresses root causes, the affected population, in particular women, must be able to engage in a substantive and relevant dialogue with local authorities on good governance, human rights, the rule of law and climate change. Placing importance on coherent action by the United Nations system, she stressed that close cooperation between the Resident Coordinator’s office and mission leadership is its key aspect, as is coordination with various donors and international financial institutions such as the Global Community Engagement and Resilience Fund. Underscoring that the local population must be committed to the objectives of peacekeeping missions with equal and significant participation of women, she pointed out that good strategic communication, as well as an effective response to the expectations of the civilian population, are the basis for this acceptance.
SURIYA CHINDAWONGSE (Thailand) stressed the need for concerns of affected countries to be foregrounded in achieving sustainable peace and stability in any conflict-affected area. To this end, Thailand supports inclusive consultations between the Security Council, the host country, troop- and police- contributing countries, among other stakeholders. He stressed the need for regional-global partnerships, integrating the perspectives of affected countries, and support from the international community in providing best practices and mobilizing resources. He commended the leadership of the African Union and subregional organizations in addressing peace and security challenges on the continent, as well as the UN-AU Framework for Enhanced Partnership in Peace and Security. Further, he underscored the importance of mutually-reinforcing sustainable peace and sustainable development through capacity building support, outlining efforts by Thai peacekeepers in this regard, including through capacity-building help to build infrastructure in South Sudan. Further, inclusiveness is integral to addressing the root causes of conflict and achieving sustaining peace.
ALEXANDER MARSCHIK (Austria), stressing that it is not enough to build peace in the strictest sense of the word, added that the international community must build resilience in conflict and post-conflict settings. Underscoring the importance of system-wide coherence on a global level, he said the Security Council must address underlying factors of conflict by fostering links with other parts of the Organization, particularly the Peacebuilding Commission. The peace and security system should also draw on the vast expertise of the United Nations system for early warning and prevention. The Organization must foster even stronger partnerships with regional organizations such as the African Union, ECOWAS and European Union, he said, highlighting the fundamental role of women and young people in conflict prevention, peace processes and strengthening resilience.
VANESSA FRAZIER (Malta) stated that peacekeeping mandates need to include a clear vision of how a mission will empower local societies and create resilient communities and institutions. Touching on the women, peace and security agenda, she noted that by ensuring the full, equal and meaningful participation of females, the international community can contribute to the formation of resilient institutions and an inclusive society. Youth also have a fundamental role to play, she added. Stressing that the United Nations system has the necessary institutional knowledge and experience to refine its vision of how peacekeeping operations can bridge existing gaps and establish sustainable peace, she pressed the Council to maximize its potential and contemplate how to deploy future missions.
ANDRÉS EFREN MONTALVO SOSA (Ecuador) said that to prevent or stop war, dialogue is indispensable; once it is established, it is necessary to continue strengthening rule of law, promoting economic growth, eradicating poverty, reducing inequalities and growing democracy. All that must take place within the framework of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. In post-conflict contexts, sustainable peace must be based on a reconciliation process achieved through transitional justice and reparations to victims, as well as the demobilization and reintegration of former combatants. In line with the outcome of the 2020 review of the peacebuilding architecture, the Council must provide United Nations peace missions with necessary tools to continue strengthening long-term actions. He underscored the need to strengthen synergies of peace operations as early as possible through integrated and coordinated planning of transitions, with Resident Coordinators, United Nations country teams, other funds and programmes of the United Nations, the host country and other national actors.
ANNA KARIN ENESTRÖM (Sweden), also speaking on behalf of Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway, stressed that peace operations cannot replace the need for political will of conflict parties to pursue peace, encouraging greater integration of police and law enforcement perspectives into missions. Noting that regional organizations such as the European Union and African Union should be actively engaged in political processes and security efforts, she encouraged cohesion with the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), as well as initiatives such as the Accra Initiative, in line with A4P commitments.
Highlighting that Nordic countries are among key contributors to the United Nations Peacebuilding Fund, jointly responsible for over 30 per cent of its funding, she stressed the importance of sufficient financing to support peacebuilding activities throughout their lifecycles and in their transition phases. Recalling that climate change and climate-related security risks must be an integral part of peace operations, she encouraged more countries to support the United Nations Climate Security Mechanism, which has sent advisors to missions.
RÓBERT CHATRNÚCH (Slovakia) said that sustaining peace in Africa is a challenge that needs to be addressed in a holistic way. Security sector reform is one of the key elements for effective conflict prevention and successful post-conflict rebuilding and stabilization. A nationally-led and inclusive security sector reform process can progressively deal with the root causes of insecurity and fragility and create an enabling environment for sustainable development and peace to take place. Slovakia also recognizes the importance of the women, peace and security agenda in contributing to peace operations that create conditions for stability. It has also been proven that when young people are meaningfully engaged in peace processes the outcomes are usually more lasting and sustainable. Supporting youth advocates is about building capacity, fostering partnerships and fully integrating their perspective across the full spectrum of work.
YOKA BRANDT (Netherlands), aligning herself with the statement to be delivered by the European Union, said that peace operations should have strategic political mandates that contain long-term objectives to enhance resilience and reach sustainable peace. In this regard, she pointed to the need for a transition from peacekeeping to peacebuilding to be incorporated into mandates from the start of the operation. Noting that adequate, predictable and sustainable funding of the Peacebuilding Fund is important in ensuring effective and efficient peacebuilding work and preventing future conflicts, she also welcomed the Fund’s efforts to integrate mental health and psychosocial support in its peacebuilding interventions. Pointing out the value of coordinating efforts with regional organizations such as the African Union and international financial institutions such as the World Bank, she suggested that periodic, focused and action-oriented consultations between these players should be enhanced.
ISHIKANE KIMIHIRO (Japan) stressed the importance of strengthening United Nations peace operations, including through coordinating and integrating its efforts to support nationally-led peacebuilding activities, and those carried out by a range of partners, including United Nations agencies, regional organizations and civil society organizations, among others. Moreover, the Council should regularly draw upon the advice of the Peacebuilding Commission, so that the activities of peace operations can integrate a longer-term perspective required for peacebuilding and sustaining peace, consistent with each mission’s specific situation on the ground. Turning to sustainable funding for resilience-building against security threats including in the Sahel and coastal West Africa, he underlined the need to further leverage the Peacebuilding Fund, as well as the Peacebuilding Commission, to promote more effective and sustainable use of resources. The Peacebuilding Commission should bring together all relevant actors to marshal resources where the need for addressing threats is identified, while the Fund should strengthen its primary function as a “seed fund” to mobilize other bilateral and multilateral financial resources.
SILVIO GONZATO, representative of the European Union, in its capacity as observer, stated that building resilient peace means looking beyond peace agreements and continuously working on the underlying roots of conflict such as climate change, food insecurity, inequality and fragile governance. Working across the humanitarian-development-peace nexus is also essential towards ensuring a coherent strategy in supporting breaking the vicious cycles of conflict. The women, peace and security and the youth, peace and security agendas are mainstreamed across the joint priorities of the Union and United Nations, he said. His bloc also supports many United Nations bodies that focus on various aspects of peacebuilding and sustaining peace. Noting that there is clearly a need for a strengthened and more coherent approach to peace and security, he said that sustainable funding is a key part of the puzzle. The bloc is among the biggest contributors to the Peacebuilding Fund, providing more than 60 per cent of the funding to the mechanism, he added.
PAULA NARVÁEZ OJEDA (Chile), noting the difficult situations faced by peace operations, said an integral and multidimensional focus on conflicts was needed, which will address their structural causes. Similarly, priority attention must be given to existing vulnerabilities, which deepen the consequences of inequalities, poverty, loss of ecosystems, scarcity of resources, spread of diseases and forced displacements. Peacekeeping operations tend to be deployed in areas highly damaged by climate change, she pointed out. Thus, to conduct successful peace operations, coordination among the three pillars of the United Nations system is essential, especially as it relates to harmonizing the objectives of international peace and security with the purposes of the Sustainable Development Goals and human rights. Moreover, peace operations should seek to foster stable, more just and inclusive societies, based on the rule of law, human rights, and the empowerment of youth and women, among others. Within the Chilean contingent deployed as military experts on missions, 28 per cent are women, she said, noting that her country aims to reach 57 per cent by December.
TAREK LADEB (Tunisia) stressed that despite the active engagement of the Council in the maintenance of international peace and security, sustainable peace remains beyond reach in many parts of the world, particularly in Africa. While some Council members may argue that some underlying drivers of instability and conflicts are not within its mandate, he added, such structural factors could contribute to the resurgence of conflicts during or after peace operations and might even have a spillover effect that amplifies insecurity at the regional level given their cross-boundary nature. In this regard, he pressed the Council to reflect more on how to adjust peace operations to deal with such fragile contexts, through better coordinated and tailor-made mandates. He further pointed to the need to strengthen relationships with other United Nations organs, regional organizations, especially the African Union, and international financial institutions.
XOLISA MFUNDISO MABHONGO (South Africa) stressed that in light of the volatile and dangerous environments in which peacekeeping missions operate, the international community must continuously strengthen the quality of resilience and their adaptation to the wider architecture of peacekeeping. Recalling that his country had hosted the sixth Partnership for Technology in Peacekeeping International Symposium, he underscored that transformative and innovative strategies must be adopted as part of resilience building in peace operations. He further pointed to the need to ensure higher levels of women’s participation in peacekeeping operations by preparing appropriate facilities and training programmes for them. Underscoring that the United Nations system should strengthen partnerships with other organizations, he reiterated that the United Nations should contribute to the financing of the African-Union-led peace operations authorized by the Council.
NACIM GAOUAOUI (Algeria), welcoming the timely and important subject of the debate for the African continent, where conflicts are manifold, underscored the function of peace operations in creating an environment conducive for peacebuilding, development and conflict–prevention. Even before the issuing of mandates, peacekeeping missions should have the resources to implement their responsibilities, he said, adding that such operations must ensure no vacuum is left behind, in the case of their exit and drawdown. Such operations require political will and a comprehensive strategy, ensuring active, inclusive participation at all levels. Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration efforts are critically important during and after conflicts, to restore stability. As well, it is important to build national military capacity to address terrorist threats and the proliferation of arms. Further, he underlined the need to address asymmetric threats to civilians and peacekeepers through early warning systems and enhancing State capacity in the realm of counter-terrorism.
LUIS FELIPE LLOSA (Peru) said that, to ensure resilience in areas previously affected by conflict, it is essential to build relationships of trust between peacekeeping mission staff and the main local actors, such as national authorities, the private and productive sector, and local and popular movements, such as those led by women and youth. Such approaches should correspond to the process of transition from conflict to peacebuilding. They should also be considered in mission mandates, considering respect for human rights, promotion of gender equality, strengthening of the rule of law, eradication of poverty and building resilient and robust institutions that allow for the consolidation of peaceful coexistence. His country has been contributing decisively to six operations aimed at consolidating peace in the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, South Sudan, Abyei and Lebanon — a growing demonstration of its commitment to multilateralism and collective security, he said.
SERHII DVORNYK (Ukraine), aligning himself with the European Union, stated that along with new challenges such as the COVID‑19 pandemic and climate change, the international community is still compelled to confront the threats of an inter-State conflict resulting from an armed aggression and full-fledged invasion. He added that the underlying causes of insecurity across the globe, particularly in Africa, could hardly be remedied without proper and sufficient response to the aggressive behaviour of the Russian Federation. Pointing out that civilians and their rights are among the first to be hit by any war, he underscored that it should be a top priority for any peacekeeping operation to fully implement their mandate on ensuring civilians’ security and safety. “Now more than ever, we need a strong Security Council where all members are legitimate, responsible, as well as reliable contributors to safeguarding the rules- and values-based international order,” he concluded.
RICHARD ARBEITER (Canada) stated that certain ingredients, such as genuine engagement of the parties to the conflict in a peace process, and clear and achievable mandates with the necessary resources, are absent despite being key to the success of peace operations. The peacekeeping partnership extends beyond the Security Council and the success of the mission depends on the collaboration of all actors and mutual accountability. Further, the strength of the Peacebuilding Commission is that everything is done at the request and with the consent of the countries and regions. “The PBC [Peacebuilding Commission] speaks with countries, not just about them,” he emphasized. There is deep value in the advice that the Commission can offer to the Council. Finally, on funding mechanisms available to support resilience building, the call for Member States to increase their contributions to peacebuilding and peacekeeping is important. In December 2021, Canada proudly announced a commitment of $70 million over three years to the Peacebuilding Fund to help close the funding gap and support gender-focused interventions.
MUHAMMAD ABDUL MUHITH (Bangladesh) said that military operations alone will not help bring about sustainable peace, in light of the evolving challenges and threats facing the global security environment. Capacity-building of relevant host country institutions is vital to build resilient institutions when peace operations leave countries. As a leading troop- and police-contributing country, Bangladesh has been involved in many resilience-building efforts in host countries, including conflict-prevention, monitoring truces, supporting elections, strengthening judicial reform, and constructing roads and schools. He underlined the need for operations to help foster inclusive participation, in line with Council resolutions 1325 (2000) and 2250 (2015). As well, there is a need for more effective partnership and coordination between United Nations funds and agencies as well as regional organizations, in line with Council resolution 2594 (2021). He called for sustained financing for operations and for greater synergy to be fostered between peacebuilding and peacekeeping, with the help of the Peacebuilding Commission, particularly with respect to mandate-setting.
KRZYSZTOF MARIA SZCZERSKI (Poland) noted that there can be no long-term stability without eliminating the underlying causes of conflicts such as the lack of socio-political unity, exclusion from political processes, inequalities, weak institutions, climate-related risks and food insecurity. Pointing to the importance of focusing on the humanitarian-development-peace nexus, he stressed the need to overcome the silo mentality and apply a more comprehensive approach, cross-cutting through the areas of conflict prevention, peacekeeping and peacebuilding. Highlighting that partnerships are another important ingredient of sustainable peace, he endorsed closer cooperation between the United Nations and other international and regional organizations, including international financial institutions. In this regard, he expressed support for the Peacebuilding Commission’s collaboration with various United Nations organs and bodies, including the Council, the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and missions in the field.
OMAR KADIRI (Morocco) said the response to multiple and complex challenges should be based on new approaches and innovation that will allow the international community to anticipate and intervene, rather than be limited to responding. He voiced support for the work of the Department of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs, particularly in local capacity-building for women and young people in mediation and conflict prevention, noting that his country is honoured to be among the Department’s donor countries for several years to date. He stressed the need to strengthen complementarity and coordination between the Council and the Peacebuilding Commission. The Central African Republic Configuration, chaired by his country, is continuing the excellent practice of sharing information with the Council based on peacebuilding priorities before each renewal of the mandate of MINUSCA, he said.
ALHAJI FANDAY TURAY (Sierra Leone) stressed that successful outcomes for peace depend on valuing prevention more and focusing on peacebuilding at the local and national levels. A key factor in building sustainable peace is local ownership, he said, which is often inadequately attended to — or even undermined — by international humanitarian action, development assistance, disaster recovery, and peacebuilding efforts. Working closely with local actors, peacebuilders truly understand the conflict perspective and context-specific characteristics of a given region, as well as the people’s strengths, assets and strategies in the face of violence. A resilience approach offers a crucial tool to analyse and design policies and programming, which will be tailored to the specific needs of the local people. “Together we are stronger, and it is much easier to sustain peace with all the stakeholders on board than with some excluded and marginalized,” the representative said.
CLAVER GATETE (Rwanda) stressed the need for an awareness strategy to educate communities on their role in restoring peace and rebuilding the country to create ownership. Expectations should also be well articulated to avoid false hopes, he said, adding that tentative peace operations should support and mobilize host-nation authorities in addressing issues compromising their security and stability. Host countries should also develop and implement what is best for them, understanding the importance of including all stakeholders and ensuring that relevant needs, including those of the most vulnerable, are addressed. After the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda, homegrown solutions were embedded within the reform framework. Rwanda was then able to establish institutional reforms with the support of partners, but the “what and how” was left for Rwandans, so they could be accountable for their decisions. “This way, our failures are our own”, he concluded.
MARTÍN JUAN MAINERO (Argentina) stated that the Council has recently confronted both traditional and non-traditional threats, requiring the organ to design new approaches to guarantee an effective response that will ensure sustainable peace. Noting that new threats to peace and international security include advanced weapons and cybercrimes, he stressed the need to give robust mandates to peacekeeping operations, enabling them to respond to the changing security dynamic and adapt to the contemporary times context.
MARISKA DWIANTI DHANUTIRTO (Indonesia) stressed that the Security Council should be agile in deciding on what form the mission takes throughout the peace continuum. Further, she underscored the need for national ownership in order to respond to conditions on the ground. Peace operations must ensure a positive impact on local populations, not only in facilitating national stakeholders for dialogue, but in addressing the root causes of conflicts. In this regard, she called for the role of women peacekeepers to be optimized to better enhance peacekeeping operations and reach vulnerable groups more effectively. Further, training and capacity-building should be strengthened to ensure peacekeepers can competently address their mandate. To this end, she underscored the need to foster partnerships in achieving specific tasks, including a better understanding of local culture, adding that her country incorporates community engagement in its pre-deployment training.
JEANNE MRAD (Lebanon) stressed that countries facing stark inequality and weak institutions are at increased risk of conflict. Poorly distributed wealth and lack of jobs, opportunities and freedoms, particularly for a large youth population, can also increase the risk of instability. As such, sustainable peace requires a comprehensive approach to security. Development and security can no longer be addressed in silos, she said. As root causes of conflicts, peace and security are interlinked and mutually reinforcing. The Council might be required to devise new approaches to ensure a balanced response to both military operations and underlying causes of conflict. Her delegation favors United Nations country teams working as parallel yet complementary structures with peacekeeping operations. This will allow the creation in tandem of an enabling environment for peacebuilding and sustaining peace in close coordination with local communities and Governments.
ANA PAULA BAPTISTA GRADE ZACARIAS (Portugal), aligning herself with the European Union, stated that as her country is currently engaged in several missions, including in the Central African Republic, South Sudan and Colombia, she has become aware that peacekeeping is now increasingly demanding with more complex and hostile operational environments. Stressing the need to focus on the root causes of conflicts, she underscored that political engagement at all levels is necessary to address grievances and to rebuild trust between citizens and the State, military and law enforcement. She shared that her country has supported Mozambique in tackling the armed conflict in Cabo Delgado, providing training to its armed forces as well as support towards its justice, security and defence sectors. Noting that the A4P Plus initiative recognizes the key role of regional organizations in ensuring local ownership, she expressed hope that a decision will be made soon to ensure predictable and sustainable financing for African Union-led operations.
TIJJANI MUHAMMAD BANDE (Nigeria) said the Council must develop new strategies to deliver sustainable peace, pointing out that in the Sahel, communities affected by terrorism and violent extremism require greater access to livelihoods, social protection, and basic social services to build resilience and reduce vulnerabilities to radicalization and recruitment. Noting that most peace operations take place in countries most exposed to climate change, he underscored the need for the Council to identify partnerships and strategies to address climate-related security risks. Further, peacekeepers can play a vital role in supporting national responses to health crises, and provide support in the delivery and funding of vocational and skills trainings for local communities. Underscoring the need for predictable and sustainable funding to build resilience against security threats in the Sahel and coastal west Africa, he welcomed progress made by the United Nations in securing increased funding for peacebuilding, including through assessed contributions, and emphasized the need for such efforts to support peacekeeping operations undertaken by the African Union and Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).
AL-HARITH IDRISS AL-HARITH MOHAMED (Sudan), drawing on his country’s experience, noted that peacebuilding efforts should be implemented by focusing on the principles of resilience and national or local ownership as well as sustaining peace. It should endeavour to achieve peace by linking the international peacebuilding process to local political, cultural and social actors, he added. He expressed hope that the peacebuilding process will boost the mobilization of necessary resources and support for national efforts aimed at establishing the necessary mechanism for drafting its constitution. He called on United Nations country teams and other organizations, including international financial institutions, to provide the necessary support for the country’s transition and peacebuilding.
THOMAS PETER ZAHNEISEN (Germany) said his country has advocated for increasing the capacity of peacekeeping missions to analyse how climate-related factors play into conflict dynamics. Climate security advisers in mission settings, such as those already in UNSOM, provide important analyses to mission leadership, he said, calling for such positions to be established in all appropriate mission settings. The Peacebuilding Commission is one of the crucial instruments to address the root causes of conflict and support national and regional efforts to build resilient communities. Noting that the Commission now gives written advice to the Council, he said cooperation between both must be further enhanced. The Commission could, for instance, brief on aspects that have not yet received sufficient attention in the Council. Turning to the question of adequate, predictable and sustainable funding for African-Union-led peace support operations for countering violent extremism and terrorism in Africa, he said Germany looks forward to discussing further what the modalities of such funding could look like.